From the Preface. THE purpose of all language books is plainly to teach the correct use of words, sentences, and paragraphs as a means in oral and written expression. With a common purpose, the chief difference must lie in the plan, the subject matter and the treatment used to accomplish this end. This may justify a brief statement of the motif or scheme of this language book. It is believed first of all that language in itself is a legitimate subject of study, that experience in the use of language must form the basis of the work in formal Grammar. For this reason the lessons of this book are confined strictly to language work, leaving the discussion of formal grammar to the second book of the series. A child should acquire a certain power in the use of language and in self expression before being asked to study and analyze the sentence which is the unit of formal grammar. Each lesson teaches a definite language point, as indicated in its title. The recognition of the relation of each lesson to the purpose and scheme of the book will make the teacher's work more definite and more effective. The language work of this book is on a thought basis, as is the grammar work of the higher book. Part I. treats of the sentence as a whole, of the kinds of sentences, the punctuation and capitalization of sentences, with continual drill in both oral and written expression. Part II. deals with the Paragraph as a larger unit of composition. The pupil is led to see the form and purpose of the paragraph and to embody these in his own expression. Part III. takes up a detailed study of certain misused words such as "is" and "are," "was" and "were, have" and "has," etc., and provides extended drill on their correct use in both oral and written exercises, which includes friendly, social and business letters. Many of the lessons of this group are based on the evolution of the book as depicted in Mr. Alexander's famous paintings. It is thought that these lessons will give the pupils an added interest in the development of language in its written and printed form. Part IV. has to do with the thought and the form in written expression. The pupil is led to see that the thought or purpose determines the form of expression. The development of this idea prepares him for the study of formal grammar in the advanced book of the series. This analysis of the plan and purpose of the book is given in the hope that it will help teachers using it to make their work more interesting, more direct, and consequently more effective. Many of the illustrations were taken expressly for this book and acknowledgments are due Mr. Eugene J. Hall and Mr. Wilfrid Young of Chicago for assistance in this work, also to Messrs. Curtis & Cameron for the use of Mr. Alexander's pictures of "The Evolution of the Book." For permission to use selections from the writings of authors of whose works they are the authorized publishers, acknowledgment is given to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Company. We also acknowledge the kindness of Mrs. Laura E. Richards and her publishers, Messrs. Little, Brown & Company, for permission to use extracts from her writings.