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Teacher's Guide to the Russian Abacus or S'chyoty

Teacher's Guide To The Russian Abacus Or S'chyoty


Sitka National Historical Park preserves the history and culture of the Tlingits who first settled in the Sitka area and the Russians who arrived in 1799 to colonize Alaska. From 1804-1867, Sitka was known as Novo-Arkhangels k or New Archangel, the capital of Russian America. When the Russians arrived, they brought with them their religion, language, and culture to share with the Tlingit and other Europeans who colonized Alaska with the Russian American Company. They also brought along various business tools, like the Russian abacus, or s chyoty. The Russian American Company kept extensive business records using the s chyoty, or Russian abacus. The s chyoty is used even to this day in some parts of Russia to determine sales totals.In the 1840's, the first Bishop of the Alaska Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church, Bishop Innocent, established a residence and seminary in Sitka. He also created an elementary school in the 1843 Russian Bishop's House, a building built by the Russian American Company to hold the seminary, a chapel, and the Bishop's personal quarters. The historical Russian Bishop's House was restored to its 1853 appearance by the National Park Service and is cared for by Sitka National Historical Park today. This special building is one of only three or four Russian American buildings left in all of North America, it is over 70% original, and it is the only one restored to its original historical period with original furnishings inside. It also contains the oldest Russian Orthodox church (a small chapel) in Alaska.As Native Alaskans were converted to the Russian Orthodox Church, they became citizens of Russia and entitled to an education. Russian American Company officials wanted to ensure that local people would be able to function in the company as clerks, managers, accountants, etc. Curriculum in the mission schools included religious studies, arithmetic, history, languages, geography, penmanship, etc. Because of the regular use of the s chyoty, therefore, students attending classes at the Russian Bishop's House would have used it for lessons in arithmetic. This arithmetic would also have been handy for the more practical skills of carpentry and blacksmithing also taught in the school.



  • Condition: --
    HPB condition ratings
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    • Fine/Like New (F): No defects, little usage. May show remainder marks. Older books may show minor flaws.
    • Very Good (VG): Shows some signs of wear and is no longer fresh. Attractive. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
    • Good (G): Average used book with all pages present. Possible loose bindings, highlighting, cocked spine or torn dust jackets. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
    • Fair (FR): Obviously well-worn, but no text pages missing. May be without endpapers or title page. Markings do not interfere with readability. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
    • Poor (P): All text is legible but may be soiled and have binding defects. Reading copies and binding copies fall into this category. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
    Conditions Guide
  • Format: Paperback
  • Sold by: --
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
  • ISBN-13: 9781500682262
  • ISBN: 1500682268
  • Publication Year: 2014
  • Edition: TCH
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HPB condition ratings
  • New: Item is brand new, unused and unmarked, in flawless condition.
  • Fine/Like New (F): No defects, little usage. May show remainder marks. Older books may show minor flaws.
  • Very Good (VG): Shows some signs of wear and is no longer fresh. Attractive. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
  • Good (G): Average used book with all pages present. Possible loose bindings, highlighting, cocked spine or torn dust jackets. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
  • Fair (FR): Obviously well-worn, but no text pages missing. May be without endpapers or title page. Markings do not interfere with readability. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
  • Poor (P): All text is legible but may be soiled and have binding defects. Reading copies and binding copies fall into this category. Used textbooks do not come with supplemental materials.
Conditions Guide
HPB condition ratings
  • New: Mint condition or still sealed (SS). Absolutely perfect in every way. New.
  • Fine/Like New (EX): No defects, little sign of use, well cared for. Plays perfectly. Close to new. Not necessarily sealed or unused, but close. Could be an unopened promotional or cut item. Sometimes called: mint-minus.
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  • Good (G): Attractive and well cared for, but no longer fresh. Minor signs of wear, scuffing or scratching, but will play almost perfectly. For vinyl: barely detectable crackles or pops.
  • Fair (FR): This item is in okay condition. For vinyl: good is not so good and the record may have low level crackles or pops when playing. CD: one or more tracks may skip.
  • Poor (P): Obviously well-worn and handled. Most vinyl collectors will not buy good or below, but some tracks on CD or vinyl will play.
Conditions Guide
HPB condition ratings
  • New: This movie is unopened and brand new.
  • Fine/Like New (EX): Near new. No defects, little sign of use. Plays perfectly. Not necessarily sealed or unused, but close. No skipping; no fuzzy or snowy frames in VHS.
  • Very Good (VG): Attractive and well cared for but no longer fresh. Minor signs of wear, but will play almost perfectly. For VHS: barely detectable distortion or very few fuzzy or snowy frames.
  • Good (G): This item is in okay condition and basically works well. There may be some minor distortion on VHS tape; slight scratching or wear on DVD.
  • Fair (FR): Basically plays, but may be obviously well-worn with some scratching or tape distortion.
  • Poor (P): Disc or tape is intact, but may be scratched or stretched. There may be skips or distortion or product defects.
Conditions Guide
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